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Definitions of individual services

TRANSLATIONS (T)

T (Translation)” stands for translation + stylistic and grammatical proofreading by the same translator. (= 1 source)

TP (Translation+proofreading)” stands for translation + stylistic and grammatical proofreading by a different translator/proofreader. (= 2 independent sources)

TE (Translation+editing)” stands for translation + independent (comparative) review by a different translator (reviewer) + stylistic and grammatical proofreading by the same translator/proofreader, who has done the independent (comparative) review. (= 2 independent sources)

TEP (Translation+editing+proofreading)” stands for translation + independent (comparative) review by a different translator +stylistic and grammatical proofreading by the same translator/proofreader, who has done the independent (comparative) review (reviewer) + stylistic and grammatical proofreading by a different proofreader (third person). (= 3 independent sources)

Translation (TR)
  • The written conversion of text from the source language to the target language. The aim is to correctly comprehend the meaning of the source text and the author’s intention and to express these in the target language. The translation must be precise, comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically consistent; the text must be written in a style appropriate for the target group and the intended purpose of the text. The translator is required to respect the instructions and reference materials provided.
  • The translation is performed by a translator who is a native speaker of the target language (or his/her knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker) who possesses appropriate professional knowledge as well as an excellent command of the source language and terminology.
  • While translating it is necessary to follow all instructions and to work with the provided reference materials, style guides and glossaries.
  • Furthermore, the translator is required to independently search for additional required information and supplemental material (the client’s website and the websites of other companies in the particular field, professional dictionaries, journals, etc.) essential for the proper comprehension of the source text and its appropriate translation into the target language, including the client’s established terminology.
  • The translator is obliged to utilize only the translation memories provided by the client during the execution of the order. Without the previous written consent of the client, the vendor is strictly forbidden to utilize any third-party Machine Translation applications for orders assigned by the client.
  • In the case of ambiguities concerning instructions or text to be translated (abbreviations, unclear expressions, illegible text), it is necessary to contact the client sufficiently ahead of the translation deadline so that all problematic points can be resolved, ideally by sending the translator’s questions in the “Query Report” form.
  • The completed translation must meet the following minimum requirements:
    • accuracy (accurate transfer of original meaning into the target language);
    • correctness (correct transcription of data: numbers, names etc., alphabetical ordering of words, indexes);
    • completeness (whole text must be translated, without unreasonable omissions of parts of the source text in the translation or superfluous additions and unnecessary extensions of the text, including headers and footers, unless instructions specify otherwise);
    • language correctness (grammar, language, uppercase/lowercase letters, loanwords, compound words, etc., punctuation (hyphenation, use of dashes and hyphens, correct question marks, spaces, commas, etc.), syntax corresponding to valid rules and conventions of the target language, the translation does not include any spelling mistakes and typos);
    • terminology correctness and consistency (use of correct specialized and field terminology, adherence to terminology of the client according to provided terminology glossary and reference materials or terminology available on his/her website, uniform use of terminology);
    • appropriate and uniform style and language register corresponding to intended use and target group (correct tone of the translation, comprehensibility, avoidance of word-for-word translation, adherence to stylistic instructions, use of neutral language with respect to masculine/feminine gender, verb tenses, translations of idioms, bibliographies, citations, etc.);
    • correct and uniform adaptation of the target text to local language conventions (decimal separator, time format, calendar dates and numbers (separation of thousands by space, point or comma), units of measurement, currencies, format of addresses and telephone numbers, topographical expressions, names and degrees of individuals, employment positions, salutation style, official names of institutions and organizations, names of companies and products, brand names, names of legal and generally recognized documents, abbreviations and acronyms, keyboard shortcuts and other local specifics);
    • observance of formatting according to the source text (observance of the layout and flow of the text and paragraphs, bullets and numbering, borders, paragraph styles, letter typeface (serif, sans serif), font (bold, underlined, italics), general symbols (e.g. ©, ®, &, %, ™, #) and additional features, such as contents, lists and tables, page size and layout, headers and footers, images, diagrams, graphics, illustrations, links, use of spaces (e.g. no spaces or double spaces), tags, etc.);
    • the text must be translated in the specified editor, in the stipulated version and format.
  • Prior to sending the translation it is necessary to read through the text, check spelling and grammar (using tools for checking spelling and grammar), to make certain that the text is stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated (including headers and footers) and that the work satisfies all the stipulated requirements.
  • Billing unit: source word or, in the case of a non-editable format, target word.
  • Technique: transcription of the text in the stipulated format and editor.
  • Capacity: 250–300 words/hour.
Translation – CAT (TC)
  • The written conversion of text from source to target language performed with a special CAT program[1] (e.g. SDL Trados, Wordfast, SDLX, etc.). The aim is to correctly comprehend the meaning of the source text and the intention of the author and to express these in the target language. The translation must be precise, comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically consistent; the text must be written in a style appropriate for the target group and the intended purpose of the text. The translator is required to respect the instructions and reference materials provided.
  • The translation is performed by a translator who is a native speaker of the target language (or his/her knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker) who possesses appropriate professional knowledge as well as an excellent command of the source language, terminology and the relevant CAT tool.
  • The translator is required to work with the provided translation memory, in the specified CAT tool type and version, and to prepare the translation in the requested format.
  • During the translation it is necessary to respect all instructions and to work with the provided reference materials, style guides and glossaries, which are typically imported into the CAT tool in the form of terminological databases.
  • The translator is obliged to utilise only the translation memories provided by the client during the execution of the order. Without the previous written consent of the client, the translator is strictly forbidden to utilise any third-party machine translation applications for orders assigned by the contractor.
  • Furthermore, the translator is further required to independently search for additional required information and supplemental material (the client’s website and the websites of other companies in the particular field, professional dictionaries, journals, etc.) essential for the proper comprehension of the source text and its appropriate translation into the target language, including the client’s established terminology (cf. term base directly attached in the translation project). 
  • In the case of processing an SEO translation (SEO = search engine optimization), intended for the translation (localization) of websites and e-shops, it is necessary to implement keywords and phrases appropriate for the given market, target group and field, the list of which the translator receives from the contractor when the order is placed. The frequent utilization of keywords in the translation, but with respect to its natural wording and marketing text stylistics, ensures the best possible website search engine ranking.
  • When translating, it is necessary to ensure that formatting symbols (“tags”) in target segments are not disturbed, so that tags in the target text agree with the tags in the source text (in justified cases it is possible to erase internal tags representing, for example, apostrophes in English, etc., or to change the order of tags due to divergent word order in the source and target text).
  • In the case of receiving a partially pre-translated file, the translator shall not change the content of 100% and context matches; nevertheless, these segments should be checked and actively used to maintain the consistency of the translation, unless instructions specify otherwise. If grammatical or spelling errors appear in these during the translation, the translator is to correct the problems so they do not appear in other instances. If the translator finds other serious errors in these segments (semantic, terminological, stylistic), the translator is to first bring the matter to the attention of the client and correct the mistakes if instructed to do so.
  • In order to ensure the consistency of the translation, it is also necessary, apart from using the terminology database, 100% and context matches from the translation memory, to actively search for the translation of terms and phrases in the translation memory using the “Concordance” function, e.g. when translating new terms or phrases.
  • In the case of ambiguities concerning instructions or text to be translated (abbreviations, unclear expressions) or technical problems with the CAT tool, it is necessary to contact the client sufficiently ahead of the translation deadline so that all contentious points as well as any technical problems can be resolved in time (with respect to the order deadline).
  • Prior to being returned, the translation must be checked by the translator using the program’s quality and accuracy control tool (QA Checker), which points out formal errors in the translation (consistency, accuracy of numbers, tags, punctuation, completeness, etc.). A standard built-in spelling check is also included.
  • Finally, it is advisable to read through the text and ensure that it is free of grammatical errors, is stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated with respect to the required length of subtitles and satisfaction of all other stipulated requirements. This final control can be performed by reading through individual segments and “assessing” the text as a whole.
  • The completed translation must meet the same minimum requirements as a regular translation (TR).
  • The translator is required to deliver the translation in the format requested by the client (standard, SDL project package).
  • Billing unit: source word plus the relevant discount determined by the CAT analysis.
  • Technique: transcription of the text in the stipulated format with the use of the specified CAT tool.
  • Capacity: 250–300 words/hour.

[1] CAT tools facilitate translation of various formats using translation memories (TM). CAT tools divide text into segments (typically sentences) and save translated segment pairs into a TM during the translation. When segments that have already been translated and saved in the TM reappear in the same or another text, they are offered to the translator. If there is a term base in the form of a glossary, preferred translations of expressions are offered to the translator in relevant places. After importing the source format, CAT tools enable any special preparation of the file, e.g., locking parts of text that are not to be translated (parts of source code, time codes, etc.). Furthermore, before exporting the translation in the source format, they enable control of all potential deviations from the source formatting, language inconsistencies and grammar and spelling of the target language via the built-in Quality Assurance Checker (hereinafter QA Checker).

Sworn/Certified Translation (TW)
  • The written conversion of text from source to target language performed in accordance with the requirements of the given country for sworn or certified translations. The translation is performed by a translator accredited by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, the Supreme Court or another institution in accordance with the laws of the given country.
  • The translator is required to independently search for required information and supplemental materials essential for the proper comprehension of the source text and its appropriate translation into the target language, particularly samples of official documents in the target language.
  • In the case of ambiguities concerning instructions or text to be translated (abbreviations, unclear expressions, illegible text), it is necessary to contact the client sufficiently ahead of the translation deadline so that all problematic points can be resolved.
  • The translator is required to translate the entire text, including seals and signatures (illegible signatures should be labelled as illegible; the type of stamp should also be described, e.g. round stamp), the notary’s verification of the copy, all legalisation certificates, etc., while also maintaining the layout of the source document.
  • The completed translation must meet the same minimum requirements as a regular translation (TR).
  • Sworn/certified translations are to be submitted in paper (hardcopy) or electronic form as previously agreed with the contractor.
  • In addition, sworn/certified translations must fulfil the formal requirements of the given country in order to be valid as official documents.
  • General requirements of sworn/certified translations in paper form:
    • The translation is to be bound with the original source text or a notary certified copy of the source text. (If it is possible to only bind the translation with a plain copy of the source text, it is necessary to state this in the translation. Nevertheless, a translation bound in this way will only have the effect of a plain copy, not of an official document.)
    • The translator or another accredited person is required to include at the end of the text an official statement (Translator’s Clause) documenting the fact that the content and formal side of the translation agree with the source text; the statement likewise includes a confirmation that the translator has been appointed as a sworn/certified translator.
    • The statement is to be followed by a stamp and signature of the accredited person.
    • The translation is to be delivered in person or by post.
  • The translator is required to translate the entire text, including seals and signatures (illegible signatures should be labelled as illegible; the type of stamp should also be described, e.g. round stamp), the notary’s verification of the copy, etc. while also maintaining the layout of the source document.
  • Although the sworn/certified translator is not obliged to initially send the translation, which is to be delivered in hardcopy form, by e-mail because they are fully responsible for the quality of the translation, this procedure is preferred. It allows the client to perform an internal check of the translation, save the translation in the system where it is subsequently archived, and only after the check ask the translator to deliver the bound translation in hardcopy form.
  • In the event the sworn/certified translator receives source documents in paper form, they are required to take all necessary measures to prevent the damage, destruction or loss of the customer’s property.
  • If a sworn/certified translation is required to be submitted in official electronic form, it is prepared in the PDF/A format and the translator must certify it with their electronic signature and time stamp. It is not to be bound and is to be submitted electronically, otherwise all other formal requirements are the same as for the sworn/certified translation in paper form.
  • A translation prepared in this manner fulfils state requirements for translating foreign language documents for official purposes.
  • Prior to sending the translation it is necessary to read through the text, check spelling and grammar (using spelling and grammar control tools), to make certain that the text is stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated (including headers and footers) and that the work satisfies all stipulated requirements.
  • Billing unit: target standard page, i.e. 1,800 characters with spaces (the number of standard pages is calculated from the number of target characters; the final number is rounded to a single decimal point).
  • Technique: transcription of the text in the stipulated format and with the formal requirements set forth above (or the requirements of the given country).
  • Capacity: 250–300 words/hour.
Software translation (TS)
  • The written conversion of text from source to target language performed in a localization or CAT program. The translation must be accurate and comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically cohesive. The text must be stylistically appropriate for its intended use and target group. The translator is required to respect the instructions and reference materials provided.
  • CAT and localization programs are tools that make use of translation memories (TM). These tools divide text into segments (typically sentences) and during the translation save translated segment pairs into a database (translation memory). Segments that appear in the text that have already been translated and saved in the translation memory are offered to the translator. CAT and localization tools enable the translation of texts in special formats by locking parts of text, formatting symbols and source code that are not to be translated.
  • The translation of the software is typically divided into two parts – the translation of the user interface (UI) and the translation of documentation (UA – user assistance).
  • Translation of UI – the translation of text contained mainly in the software’s graphic interface, i.e. text appearing in application dialogue windows, the menu, control elements, etc., performed in a specialized localization tool such as Alchemy Catalyst, Passolo, Microsoft Localisation Studio, Visual Localize, Novell Localization Workbench, Symantec Pebbles, Oracle HyperHub, Lotus RED, ResEdit, Resorcerer, Project Builder, Interface Builder, AppleGlot, PowerGlot, and Installer Vise. Individual sentences of this type of translation are called “strings” (strings exported from a translated application).
  • Translation of UA – the translation of documentation such as Help text, user manuals, installation manuals, websites concerning the specific software, advertising flyers, etc. Standard CAT tools are usually used for this type of translation – e.g. SDL Trados Studio, MemoQ, Wordfast, etc. Documentation is generally translated after the translation of the user interface, as there are frequently references in this documentation to the software’s control elements. Translators should therefore have access to the software translation during the translation of the documentation so that references are translated consistently.
  • Also included in software localization is the translation of strings prepared and provided by the customer, e.g. in an *.xls file (text exported from a localized program in the event a localization tool cannot be used).
  • A software specialist handles the preparation of the text for translation, the subsequent localization and the technical processing of the product.
  • The translation is performed by a translator who is a native speaker of the target language (or his/her knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker) who possesses appropriate professional knowledge, as well as an excellent command of the source language, terminology and the relevant CAT and/or localization tool.
  • The translator is required to work with the provided translation memory, in the specified CAT or localization tool type and version, and to prepare the translation in the requested format.
  • During the translation it is necessary to respect all instructions and to work with the provided reference, style guides and glossaries, which are typically imported into the CAT tool in the form of terminological databases.
  • The translator is obliged to utilise only the translation memories provided by the client during the execution of the order. Without the previous written consent of the client, the translator is strictly forbidden to utilise any third-party machine translation applications for orders assigned by the client.
  • Furthermore, the translator is required to independently search for additional required information and supplemental material (the client’s website and the websites of other companies in the particular field, professional dictionaries, journals, etc.) essential for the proper comprehension of the source text and its appropriate translation into the target language, including the client’s established terminology (cf. term base directly attached in the translation project). 
  • When translating, it is necessary to ensure that formatting symbols (“tags”) in target segments are not disturbed, so that tags in the target text agree with the tags in the source text (in justified cases it is possible to erase internal tags representing, for example, apostrophes in English, etc., or to change the order of tags due to divergent word order in the source and target text).
  • In the case of receiving a partially pre-translated file, the translator shall not change the content of 100% and context matches; nevertheless, these segments should be checked and actively used to maintain the consistency of the translation, unless instructions specify otherwise. If grammatical or spelling errors appear in these during the translation, the translator is to correct the problems so they do not appear in other instances. If the translator finds other serious errors in these segments (semantic, terminological, stylistic), the translator is to first bring the matter to the attention of the client and correct the mistakes if instructed to do so.
  • In order to ensure the consistency of the translation, it is also necessary, apart from using the terminology database, 100% and context matches from the translation memory, to actively search for the translation of terms and phrases in the translation memory using the “Concordance” function, e.g. when translating new terms or phrases.
  • In the case of ambiguities concerning instructions or text to be translated (abbreviations, unclear expressions) or technical problems with the CAT tool, it is necessary to contact the client sufficiently ahead of the translation deadline so that all contentious points as well as any technical problems can be resolved in time (with respect to the order deadline).
  • Prior to being returned, the translation must be checked by the translator using the program’s quality and accuracy control tool (QA Checker), which points out formal errors in the translation (consistency, accuracy of numbers, tags, punctuation, completeness, etc.). A standard built-in spelling check is also included.
  • Finally, it is advisable to read through the text and ensure that it is free of grammatical errors, is stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated with respect to the required length of subtitles and satisfaction of all other stipulated requirements. This final control can be performed by reading through individual segments and “assessing” the text as a whole.
  • The completed translation must meet the same minimum requirements as a regular translation (TR).
  • The translator is required to deliver the translation in the format requested by the client (standard, SDL project package).

SPECIFICATIONS OF SOFTWARE TRANSLATIONS:

  • The translator is required to use the customer’s terminology and must work with the provided style guide. If these are not available the translator should follow standard Microsoft terminological vocabulary and the company’s style guide.
  • The translator is also required to use reference materials, ideally the actual software, to search for string contexts.
  • Strings frequently contain special characters such as %, & and \n. These characters serve a particular function in the text and therefore must be preserved in the translation. They are placed in the translated sentence with respect to their meaning and the syntactic rules of the given language.
  • The number of characters in the target text should generally be less or at most the same as the number of source characters, unless the customer specifies otherwise. Unless the client specifies otherwise, abbreviated words can be used to shorten the text. However, the comprehensibility of the text must be maintained.
  • The entire text, including control elements, software items, etc., must be translated, unless the client specifies otherwise.
  • Billing unit: source word or string (in the case of compound words); in the case a CAT tool is used – source word and the relevant discount determined by the CAT analysis.
  • Technique: transcription of the text in the stipulated format and editor, potentially with the use of a CAT or localization tool.
  • Capacity: 250 words/hour.
Translation of subtitles (TT)
  • The written conversion of subtitles from source to target language ideally performed with a special CAT program, for example, in SDL Trados Studio[2] from version 2019 onwards, which allows the installation of the Studio Subtitling plug-in (or in other programs depending on the source format). The aim is to correctly comprehend the meaning of the source subtitles in the given context and to express them in the target language. The translation must semantically correspond to the source, must be comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically consistent, and must also be stylistically appropriate for the given genre and viewers for whom it is intended with respect to the provided instructions and reference materials. At the same time, the length of one subtitle line and number of lines must correspond to the client’s requirements. In some places it might therefore be necessary to reword the translation compared to the source (use a shorter synonym, omit some words that do not contribute to the final meaning, etc.).
  • The translation is performed by a translator who is a native speaker of the target language (or whose knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker) who possesses appropriate professional knowledge as well as an excellent command of the source language, terminology and the relevant tools.
  • The translator is required to work with the provided translation memory, in the specified software, and to prepare the translation in the requested format.
  • During the translation it is necessary to respect all instructions and to work with the provided reference materials, style guides and glossaries, which are typically imported into the CAT tool in the form of terminological databases, and respect the context of the subtitled work.
  • Without the previous written consent of the client, the translator is strictly forbidden to utilise any third-party machine translation applications for orders assigned by the client.
  • The translator is further required to independently search for additional requisite information and supplemental material (the client’s website and the websites of other companies in the particular field, professional dictionaries, journals, etc.) essential for the proper comprehension of the source text and its appropriate translation into the target language, while also respecting the client’s already established terminology (cf. term base directly attached in the translation project).
  • When translating, it is necessary to ensure that formatting symbols (“tags”) in target segments are not disturbed, so that tags in the target text agree with the tags in the source text (in justified cases it is possible to erase internal tags representing, for example, apostrophes in English, etc., or to change the order of tags due to divergent word order in the source and target text).
  • In the case of ambiguities concerning instructions or text to be translated (abbreviations, unclear expressions) or technical problems with the software, it is necessary to contact the client sufficiently ahead of the translation deadline so that all contentious points as well as any technical problems can be resolved in time (with respect to the order deadline).
  • Prior to being returned, the translation must be checked by the translator using the program’s quality and accuracy control tool (QA Checker), which points out formal errors in the translation (consistency, accuracy of numbers, tags, punctuation, completeness, etc.). A standard built-in spelling check is also included.
  • Finally, it is advisable to read through the text and ensure that it is free of grammatical errors, is stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated with respect to the required length of subtitles and satisfaction of all other stipulated requirements. This final control can be performed by reading through individual segments while actively using the preview within the video (Subtitling Preview window in Studio Subtitling plug-in).
  • The completed translation must meet the same minimum requirements as a regular translation (TR).
  • The translator is required to deliver the translation in the format requested by the client (standard, SDL project package).
  • Billing unit: source minute of the recording.
  • Technique: transcription of subtitles in the stipulated format and subtitling tool.
  • Capacity: 5 minutes of recording/hour.

[2] Studio Subtitling is a plug-in facilitating the translation of subtitles (in SRT, VTT and other formats) directly in the SDL Trados Studio interface. After inserting the translation into the target segment, the translator can use the preview function to see how the subtitle will look in the video itself. At the same time, the plug-in monitors compliance with selected parameters including the minimum and maximum reading speed in characters per second (CPS), maximum number of characters per line (CPL) and maximum number of lines per subtitle (LPS).

 

PROOFREADING (P)

Language Proofreading (PE)
  • Monolingual proofreading – check of the linguistic and stylistic quality of the target text, along with the necessary corrections. The target text must be comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically consistent; the text must be written in a style appropriate for the target group and the intended purpose of the text. The translator is required to respect the instructions and reference materials provided.
  • The proofreading is performed by a proofreader who is a native speaker of the target language.
  • The proofreader works with the same materials (instructions, reference materials, style guides, glossaries, etc.) as the translator and has the source text available for comparison purposes.
  • The aim is to check:
    • correctness (correct transcription of data: numbers, names etc., alphabetical ordering of words, indexes);
    • completeness and sense (whole text must be translated, without unreasonable omissions of parts of the source text in the translation or superfluous additions and unnecessary extensions of the text, including headers and footers, unless instructions specify otherwise) – possible even without knowledge of the source language (in the case of any doubts about the completeness or meaning of the translation, the proofreader is to contact the client);
    • language correctness (grammar, language, uppercase/lowercase letters, loanwords, compound words, etc., punctuation (hyphenation, use of dashes and hyphens, correct question marks, spaces, commas, etc.), syntax corresponding to valid rules and conventions of the target language, the translation does not include any spelling mistakes and typos);
    • terminology correctness and consistency (use of correct specialized and field terminology, adherence to terminology of the client according to provided terminology glossary and reference materials or terminology available on client’s website, uniform use of terminology);
    • appropriate and uniform style and language register corresponding to intended use and target group (correct tone of the translation, comprehensibility, avoidance of word-for-word translation, adherence to stylistic instructions, use of neutral language with respect to masculine/feminine gender, verb tenses, translations of idioms, bibliographies, citations, etc.);
    • correct and uniform adaptation of the target text to local language conventions (decimal separator, time format, calendar dates and numbers (separation of thousands by space, point or comma), units of measurement, currencies, format of addresses and telephone numbers, topographical expressions, names and degrees of individuals, employment positions, salutation style, official names of institutions and organizations, names of companies and products, brand names, names of legal and generally recognized documents, abbreviations and acronyms, keyboard shortcuts and other local specifics);
    • observance of formatting according to the source text (observance of the layout and flow of the text and paragraphs, bullets and numbering, borders, paragraph styles, letter typeface (serif, sans serif), font (bold, underlined, italics), general symbols (e.g. ©, ®, &, %, ™, #) and additional features, such as contents, lists and tables, page size and layout, headers and footers, images, diagrams, graphics, illustrations, links, use of spaces (e.g. no spaces or double spaces), formatting tags, etc.).
  • Upon determining that a translation contains an excessive number of mistakes, the proofreader is required to inform the client immediately and sufficiently ahead of the deadline for delivering the completed proofreading assignment.
  • Prior to sending the proof-read document back to the client it is necessary to read through the text, check spelling and grammar (using tools for checking spelling and grammar), to make certain that the text is stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated (including headers and footers) and that the work satisfies all the stipulated requirements.
  • All the corrections of the translation are implemented directly into the text (by means of the “Track changes” function in Word in cases where the translation was done without a CAT tool). Apart from that the number of all changes must be stated in a simplified evaluation form.

SPECIFICATIONS OF LANGUAGE PROOFREADING IN CAT PROGRAMS:

  • The proofreader possesses the appropriate professional knowledge of the relevant CAT tool.
  • The proofreader works with the same materials – instructions and reference materials, style guides and glossaries (typically imported into the CAT tool in the form of terminological databases), etc. as the translator, and also has the source text available for comparison purposes.
  • The proofreader must work with the provided translation and in the stipulated CAT tool type and version.
  • The proofreader checks the text by reading through individual segments. Depending on the particular CAT tool, the “Preview” function can be utilised for the proofreading.
  • It is necessary to ensure that formatting symbols (“tags”) in target segments are not disturbed, so that tags in the target text agree with the tags in the source text (in justified cases it is possible to erase internal tags representing, for example, apostrophes in English, etc., or to change the order of tags due to divergent word order in the source and target text).
  • The proofreader must check the context of 100% matches offered by the provided translation memory, unless instructions indicate otherwise. The proofreader shall correct any grammatical or spelling errors that appear in these matches. If the proofreader finds other serious errors in these segments (semantic, terminological, stylistic), the proofreader is to first bring the matter to the attention of the client and correct the mistakes if instructed to do so.
  • In order to ensure the consistency of the translation, it is also necessary, apart from using the terminology database, 100% and context matches from the translation memory, to actively search for the translation of terms and phrases in the translation memory using the “Concordance” function, e.g. when translating new terms or phrases.
  • Should any problems with the CAT tool arise, the proofreader is required to inform the client of this situation immediately so that technical problems can be resolved.
  • Prior to being returned, the translation must be checked by the proofreader using the program’s quality and accuracy control tool (QA Checker), which points out formal errors in the translation (consistency, accuracy of numbers, tags, punctuation, completeness, etc.). A standard built-in spelling check is also included.
  • Billing unit: target word (translated text); in the case of a document translated using a CAT tool – the total number of translated words.
  • Technique: making changes directly in the text; in the case of a translation created without the use of a CAT tool the proofreader is to enable the “Track Changes” function in Word. The proofreader is then required to complete the simplified evaluation form on the website.
  • Capacity: 1,500–2,000 words/hour.
INDEPENDENT (COMPARATIVEREVIEW (PR)
  • Bilingual comparative review – a detailed comparison of the source and target text (respecting instructions and provided reference materials and glossaries) and the verification of the accuracy of the translation. The proofreader is to make the required changes. The target text must be precise, comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically consistent; the text must be written in a style appropriate for the target group for whom the text is intended. The translation must also comply with the instructions and provided reference materials.
  • The review is performed by a proofreader who is a native speaker of the target language (or his/her knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker) with excellent knowledge of the source language, an experienced translator of the particular language combination and a specialist in the respective field and the professional terminology.
  • The proofreader works with the same materials (instructions, reference materials, style guides, glossaries, etc.) as the translator and has the source text available for comparison purposes.
  • Independent review includes language and stylistic proofreading (PE) and it also includes the check of:
    • accuracy (accurate transfer of original meaning into the target language, accuracy of numbers, names, all data information, etc.);
    • terminology correctness (use of correct specialized and field terminology, adherence to terminology of the client according to provided terminology glossary and reference materials or terminology available on client’s website)
    • consistency: the consistency of the translation itself, and the use of terminology and style;
    • the completeness and meaning of the target text (including headers, footers and footnotes).
  • If the proofreader is not a native speaker or a linguist of the target language, the text will also be checked for professional terminology, content and meaning in language and style proofreading by a native speaker (PE).
  • Upon determining that a translation contains an excessive number of mistakes, the proofreader is required to inform the client immediately and sufficiently ahead of the deadline for delivering the completed proofreading assignment.
  • Prior to sending the proofread document back to the client it is necessary to check spelling and grammar (using tools for checking spelling and grammar), to make certain that the text is grammatically sound, stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated (including headers and footers) and that the work satisfies all the stipulated requirements.
  • The corrections of the translation are implemented directly into the text (by means of the “Track changes” function in Word in cases where the translation was done without a CAT tool). Apart from that the number of all changes must be stated in a simplified evaluation form.

SPECIFICATIONS OF INDEPENDENT REVIEW IN CAT PROGRAMS – see Specifications of language proofreading above.  

  • Billing unit: source word (original text); in the case of a document translated using a CAT tool – the total number of source words.
  • Technique: making changes directly in the text; in the case of a translation created without the use of a CAT tool the proofreader is to enable the “Track Changes” function in Word. The proofreader is then required to complete the simplified evaluation form on the website.
  • Capacity: 1,000–1,500 words/hour.
Independent (comparative) review of subtitles (PT)
  • Bilingual comparative review – a detailed comparison of subtitles in the source and target text (respecting instructions and provided reference materials and glossaries) and the verification of the accuracy of the translation. The proofreader is to make the required changes. The review is ideally performed with a special CAT program, for example, in SDL Trados Studio from version 2019 onwards, which allows the installation of the Studio Subtitling plug-in (or in other programs depending on the source format). The translation must semantically correspond to the source, must be comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically consistent, and must also be stylistically appropriate for the given genre and viewers for whom it is intended with respect to the provided instructions and reference materials. At the same time, the length of one subtitle line and number of lines must correspond to the client’s requirements. In some places it might therefore be necessary to reword the translation compared to the source (use a shorter synonym, omit some words that do not contribute to the final meaning, etc.).
  • The review is performed by a proofreader who is a native speaker of the target language (or whose knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker) and who possesses appropriate professional knowledge as well as an excellent command of the source language and terminology and the relevant tools.
  • The proofreader must work with the provided translation memory (must have the same translation memory as the translator) in the required software.
  • The proofreader works with the same materials (instructions, reference materials, style guides, glossaries, which are typically imported into the CAT tool in the form of terminological databases, etc.) as the translator and has the source text available for comparison purposes.
  • The review is to be performed by reading through individual segments while actively using the preview within the video (Subtitling Preview window in Studio Subtitling plug-in).
  • It is necessary to ensure that formatting symbols (“tags”) in target segments are not disturbed, so that tags in the target text agree with the tags in the source text (in justified cases it is possible to erase internal tags representing, for example, apostrophes in English, etc., or to change the order of tags due to divergent word order in the source and target text).
  • In the case of ambiguities concerning instructions or text to be translated (abbreviations, unclear expressions) or technical problems with the software, it is necessary to contact the client sufficiently ahead of the translation deadline so that all contentious points as well as any technical problems can be resolved in time (with respect to the order deadline).
  • Independent review includes language and stylistic proofreading (PE) and it also includes the check of:
    • accuracy (accurate transfer of original meaning into the target language, accuracy of numbers, names, all data information, etc.);
    • terminology correctness (use of correct specialized and field terminology, adherence to terminology of the client according to provided terminology glossary and reference materials or terminology available on client’s website)
    • consistency: the consistency of the translation itself, and the use of terminology and style;
    • the completeness and meaning of the target text.
  • Upon determining that a translation contains an excessive number of mistakes, the proofreader is required to inform the client immediately and sufficiently ahead of the deadline.
  • Prior to being returned, the translation must be checked by the proofreader using the program’s quality and accuracy control tool (QA Checker), which points out formal errors in the translation (consistency, accuracy of numbers, tags, punctuation, completeness, etc.). A standard built-in spelling check is also included.
  • Finally, the proofreader makes sure that the text is free of grammatical errors, is stylistically and terminologically cohesive, that the entire source text has been translated with respect to the required length of subtitles and satisfaction of all other stipulated requirements.
  • The corrections of the translation are implemented directly into the text. Apart from that the number of all changes must be stated in a simplified evaluation form.
  • The proofreader is required to deliver the translation in the format requested by the client (standard, SDL project package).
  • Billing unit: source minute of the recording.
  • Technique: making changes directly in the text of subtitles in the stipulated format and subtitling tool.
  • Capacity: 20–30 minutes of recording/hour.
Post-editing of machine translation (PS)
  • The process of checking and modifying a text that originates from an automatic translation (Neural Machine Translation – NMT[3]).
  • Texts after post-editing must be precise, comprehensible, grammatically correct and terminologically consistent, must be written in a style appropriate for the target group and the intended purpose of the text, must adhere to the instructions and reference materials provided, and must be prepared in the requested format.
  • Post-editing is performed by an editor who is a native speaker of the target language (or whose knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker), and who possesses appropriate professional knowledge as well as an excellent command of the source language and terminology and the relevant tools.
  • Before accepting the order, the post-editor judges whether the NMT raw output is of sufficient quality and usable. If the quality is not sufficient, they inform the client about it and agree on the further procedure with them. (In the event the post-editor reports inferior NMT quality during or after completion of the work, they may agree with the client to additionally adjust their rate based on the comparison of the raw NMT and the supplier’s final text.)
  • If the NMT is appropriate for post-editing and the post-editor accepts the order, they check the text by reading through the NMT output in individual segments and decide if and how the sentence needs to be reformulated. At the same time they avoid excessive preferential changes.
  • In order to understand the meaning of a segment or block of segments and reformulate the target text, when needed, it is necessary to follow all instructions and to work with the provided reference materials (including the CAT tools’ Preview function). Further procedures correspond to the translation in CAT (TC).
  • During the translation, the pre-translation from the supplied TM. Segments showing no concordance with the TM will be filled out by the pre-translation from NMT (marked as AT segments).
  • The posteditor is obliged to only utilise the translation memories provided by the client during the execution of the order. Without the previous written consent of the client, the translator is strictly forbidden to utilise any third-party machine translation applications for orders assigned by the client.
  • During post-editing, it is necessary to take into consideration typical drawbacks of NMT raw outputs:
    • Terms are used inappropriately or inconsistently throughout target segments.
    • When words are generated in a translation, the full context (with regard to a text section or the entire source text) is not semantically taken into account.
    • Diverse kinds of stylistics are used throughout target segments.
    • Proper names, company names, product names and abbreviations are “translated”, i.e., fictitious words appear and need to be returned to their original source form.
    • Translated terminology that should not be translated (e.g. expressions from different languages used in the source text).
    • In case of the “lack of synonyms”, duplicate expressions are generated within a sentence when translating an enumeration.
  • From the linguistic point of view, it is important to carefully check:
    • morphological forms (agreement),
    • endings (e.g. singular/plural),
    • correct use of negative forms,
    • word order.
  • After post-editing, the post-editor makes sure that:
    • No information is missing or redundant in the translation with regard to the source text.
    • Any formally and semantically inappropriate target segment content has been adapted accordingly.
    • In case of incorrect or unclear meaning, the sentences have been reworded.
    • The created target text is gramatically, syntactically and semantically correct.
    • The terminology of the given field has been observed and used consistently (the post-editor is obliged to continuously verify/search for the terminology and, when there are clear client instructions regarding the terminology, to observe their glossary or list of words that should not be translated, etc.).
    • The text corresponds to the language conventions of the given language (spelling rules, punctuation, diacritics, special symbols, etc.).
    • Style appropriate for the given type of text (purpose of translation) has been used and any other specific client requirements regarding stylistics have been observed.
    • Target text formatting corresponds to the source text.
  • Post-editing performed according to the above mentioned procedure corresponds to full post-editing, as defined by the EN 18587 standard, and is carried out within each standard post-editing order.
  • In case the client only orders light post-editing, i.e., a lower-level post-editing that is solely intended for basic understanding of the text, and not for publishing, the procedure is as follows:
    • The maximum pre-translated text is used.
    • No information can be missing or redundant.
    • Changes at the lexicon level are only made to the extent that the text is comprehensible and the key terminology is unified.
    • Basic grammatical errors and typos are corrected.
    • Stylistics are not corrected or unified in any way.
    • The resulting translation will be understandable but may not necessarily “read well”.
  • Billing unit: source word plus the relevant discount determined by the CAT analysis.
  • Technique: checking/editing text in the stipulated format.
  • Capacity: 300–600 words/hour (depending on the quality of the MT output).

[3] NMT is a computer interface based on the principle of neural networks – NMT relies on memory corpora that are able to evolve based on revisions or corrections and thus gradually improve the quality of their outputs over time. These outputs are always checked and edited by a linguist in a process called post-editing, performed in a CAT tool.

Post-editing of machine translation of subtitles (PST)
  • The process of checking and modifying a text that originates from an automatic translation (Neural Machine Translation – NMT).
  • Post-editing is performed by an editor who is a native speaker of the target language (or whose knowledge of the target language corresponds to the level of a native speaker), and who possesses appropriate professional knowledge as well as an excellent command of the source language and terminology and the relevant tools.
  • Before accepting the order, the post-editor judges whether the NMT raw output is of sufficient quality and usable. If the quality is not sufficient, they inform the client about it and agree on the further procedure with them. (In the event the post-editor reports inferior NMT quality during or after completion of the work, they may agree with the client to additionally adjust their rate based on the comparison of the raw NMT and the supplier’s final text.)
  • If the NMT is appropriate for post-editing and the post-editor accepts the order, they check the text by reading through the NMT output in individual segments and decide if and how the sentence needs to be reformulated. At the same time they avoid excessive preferential changes.
  • In order to understand the meaning of a segment or block of segments and reformulate the target text, when needed, it is necessary to follow all instructions and to work with the provided reference materials. Further procedures correspond to the translation of subtitles (TT).
  • During the translation, the pre-translation from the supplied TM is used. Segments showing no concordance with the TM will be filled out by the pre-translation from NMT (marked as AT segments).
  • The post-editor is obliged to only utilise the translation memories provided by the client during the execution of the order. Without the previous written consent of the client, the translator is strictly forbidden to utilise any third-party machine translation applications for orders assigned by the client.
  • During post-editing, it is necessary to take into consideration typical drawbacks of NMT raw outputs:
    • Terms are used inappropriately or inconsistently throughout target segments.
    • When words are generated in a translation, the full context (with regard to a text section or the entire source text) is not semantically taken into account.
    • Diverse kinds of stylistics are used throughout target segments.
    • Proper names, company names, product names and abbreviations are “translated”, i.e., fictitious words appear and need to be returned to their original source form.
    • Translated terminology that should not be translated (e.g. expressions from different languages used in the source text).
    • In case of the “lack of synonyms”, duplicate expressions are generated within a sentence when translating an enumeration.
  • From the linguistic point of view, it is important to carefully check:
    • morphological forms (agreement),
    • endings (e.g. singular/plural),
    • correct use of negative forms,
    • word order.
  • After post-editing, the post-editor makes sure that:
    • No information is missing or redundant in the translation with regard to the source text.
    • Any formally and semantically inappropriate target segment content has been adapted accordingly.
    • In case of incorrect or unclear meaning, the sentences have been reworded.
    • The created target text is gramatically, syntactically and semantically correct.
    • The terminology of the given field has been observed and used consistently (the post-editor is obliged to continuously verify/search for the terminology and, when there are clear client instructions regarding the terminology, to observe their glossary or list of words that should not be translated, etc.).
    • The text corresponds to the language conventions of the given language (spelling rules, punctuation, diacritics, special symbols, etc.).
    • Style appropriate for the given type of text (purpose of translation) has been used and any other specific client requirements regarding stylistics have been observed.
    • Target text formatting corresponds to the source text.
  • Post-editing performed according to the above mentioned procedure corresponds to full post-editing, as defined by the EN 18587 standard, and is carried out within each standard post-editing order.
  • Billing unit: source minute of the recording.
  • Technique: checking/editing subtitles in the stipulated format and subtitling tool.
  • Capacity: 6–10 minutes of recording/hour (depending on the quality of the MT output).
Language sign-off (PC)
  • Formal check of translation following graphic processing (performed, for example, in Quark, InDesign, Word, PowerPoint, etc.), i.e. a comparison of the source and target PDF in low resolution after graphic processing with the aim of checking the formatting and proper display of the text in the target language.
  • The proofreader is a native speaker of the target language, ideally the translator or proofreader that worked on the given order.
  • Language sign-off is performed visually by skim reading the textThe aim is to check:
    • completeness of text (including references, chapter headings, page numbers, captions, headers and footers);
    • proper display of text (division of words, check of lone, single-letter prepositions and conjunctions at the end of rows, proper display of all signs, images, captions, symbols and their correct placement);
    • observance of formatting according to the source text (observance of the layout and flow of the text and paragraphs, bullets and numbering, borders, paragraph styles, letter typeface (serif, sans serif), font (bold, underlined, italics), general symbols (e.g. ©, ®, &, %, ™, #) and additional features, such as contents, lists and tables, page size and layout, headers and footers, images, diagrams, graphics, illustrations, links, etc., use of spaces (e.g. no spaces or double spaces));
    • compliance with the typographic customs of the target language (punctuation (use of dashes and hyphens, correct quotation marks, spaces, etc.), diacritical marks;
    • compliance with instructions (correct transcription of document version numbers and language abbreviations (occurring in headers and footers) etc.);
    • references (to manuals, chapters, illustrations, pages, etc.).
  • Texts undergoing language sign-off should no longer contain any grammatical, stylistic and semantic deficiencies – any of these changes in the text significantly increase the costs of further DTP processing and the aim of this service is not to check them. Nevertheless, if the proofreader spots such mistakes, it is necessary to correct them but the proofreader is required to inform the client of them.
  • Upon determining that a translation in PDF contains an excessive number of the above mentioned or other mistakes, the proofreader is required to inform the client as far ahead of the deadline for the proofreading as possible and agree on a further procedure, i.e. returning the translation for revision or changing the service to a pre-print proofreading.
  • All of the changes and notes made in the PDF file of the translated text must also be transferred to the original translated document. In the case that the text is processed using a CAT tool, the bilingual (unclean) text must be updated with the changes. The unclean text is then used to update the translation memory. The proofreader is given the bilingual files and the translation memory at the time the proofreading is ordered along with the PDF file with the translation into which the changes are recorded.
  • Billing unit: hour.
  • Technique: marking changes using the Note Tool (or by highlighting text) in Acrobat Reader.
  • Capacity: 20 pages or 5,000 words/hour.
Pre-print proofreading (PP)
  • Detailed check of translation following graphic processing (performed, for example, in Quark, InDesign, Word, PowerPoint, etc.), i.e. a comparison of the source and target PDF in low resolution following graphic processing with the aim of checking the formatting, proper display of the text in the target language and completeness of the text.
  • The proofreader is a native speaker of the target language, ideally the translator or proofreader that worked on the given order.
  • Pre-print proofreading requires detailed reading of the text and its comparison with the source text
  • The aim of the pre-print proofreading is to check:
    • completeness and sense (the whole text must be translated and complete and it must substitute the correct original text, including headers and footers, chapter headings, page numbers, captions, headers and footers);
    • correctness of content (correct transcription of data: numbers, names etc., alphabetical ordering of words, indexes);
    • spelling and typos, punctuation (commas etc.);
    • proper display of text (division of words, check of lone, single-letter prepositions and conjunctions at the end of rows, proper display of all signs, images, captions, symbols and their correct placement);
    • observance of formatting according to the source text (observance of the layout and flow of the text and paragraphs, bullets and numbering, borders, paragraph styles, letter typeface (serif, sans serif), font (bold, underlined, italics), general symbols (e.g. ©, ®, &, %, ™, #) and additional features, such as contents, lists and tables, page size and layout, headers and footers, images, diagrams, graphics, illustrations, links, etc., use of spaces (e.g. no spaces or double spaces));
    • compliance with the typographic customs of the target language (punctuation (use of dashes and hyphens, correct quotation marks, spaces, etc.);
    • compliance with instructions (correct transcription of document version numbers and language abbreviations (occurring in headers and footers) etc.);
    • references (to manuals, chapter, illustrations, pages, etc.).

Note: If the source text is not available, the pre-print proofreading is performed only by detailed reading of the text and does not contain the check of completeness, correctness of content and observance of formatting according to the source text.  

  • Texts for pre-print proofreading should no longer contain any grammatical, stylistic and semantic deficiencies – any of these changes in the text significantly increase the costs of further DTP processing. For this reason the proofreader should definitely avoid making preferential changes during pre-print proofreading. Nevertheless, should the text contain any semantic or other mentioned mistakes that could arise due to the absence of the complete context during translating, these mistakes must be corrected but the client must be informed that these changes have been made.
  • Upon determining that a translation contains an excessive number of these or other mistakes, the proofreader is required to inform the client as far ahead of the deadline for the proofreading as possible and agree on an exact procedure.
  • All changes and notes highlighted in the PDF file must also be implemented in the original translated document. In the case that the translation was processed using a CAT tool the bilingual (unclean) file must be updated with the changes; this updated clean file is then used to update the translation memory. The proofreader obtains the bilingual file and translation memory at the time the proofreading is ordered, along with the PDF file with the translation into which the changes are recorded.
  • Billing unit: hour.
  • Technique: marking changes using the Note Tool (or by highlighting text) in Acrobat Reader.
  • Capacity: 8 pages or 2,000 words/hour.
Evaluation of translation (PQ)
  • Independent proofreading along with an evaluation of translation quality. Evaluations are used to assess the first translation by new suppliers or another sample of a translation, especially in larger projects as random quality control after translation and proofreading.
  • The proofreader is a native speaker of the target language with excellent knowledge of the source language, an experienced translator of the particular language combination and a specialist in the respective field and the professional terminology.
  • The proofreader works with the same materials (instructions, reference materials, style guides, glossaries, etc.) as the translator and has the source text available for comparison purposes.
  • The aim is to check:
    • accuracy (accurate transfer of original meaning into the target language, accuracy of numbers, names, all data information, etc.); 
    • correctness (correct transcription of data: numbers, names etc., alphabetical ordering of words, indexes);
    • completeness and sense (whole text must be translated, without unreasonable omissions of parts of the source text in the translation or superfluous additions and unnecessary extensions of the text, including headers and footers, unless instructions specify otherwise);
    • language correctness (grammar, language, uppercase/lowercase letters, loanwords, compound words, etc., punctuation (hyphenation, use of dashes and hyphens, correct question marks, spaces, commas, etc.), syntax corresponding to valid rules and conventions of the target language, the translation does not include any spelling mistakes and typos);
    • terminology correctness and consistency (use of correct specialized and field terminology, adherence to terminology of the client according to provided terminology glossary and reference materials, uniform use of terminology);
    • appropriate and uniform style and language register corresponding to intended use and target group (correct tone of the translation, comprehensibility, avoidance of word-for-word translation, adherence to stylistic instructions, use of neutral language with respect to masculine/feminine gender, verb tenses, translations of idioms, bibliographies, citations, etc.);
    • correct and uniform adaptation of the target text to local language conventions (decimal separator, time format, calendar dates and numbers (separation of thousands by space, point or comma), units of measurement, currencies, format of addresses and telephone numbers, topographical expressions, names and degrees of individuals, employment positions, salutation style, official names of institutions and organizations, names of companies and products, brand names, names of legal and generally recognized documents, abbreviations and acronyms, keyboard shortcuts and other local specifics);
    • observance of formatting according to the source text (observance of the layout and flow of the text and paragraphs, bullets and numbering, borders, paragraph styles, letter typeface (serif, sans serif), font (bold, underlined, italics), general symbols (e.g. ©, ®, &, %, ™, #) and additional features, such as contents, lists and tables, page size and layout, headers and footers, images, diagrams, graphics, illustrations, links, use of spaces (e.g. no spaces or double spaces), formatting tags, etc.).
  • The proofreader does not make changes in the translated text, but copies them to a detailed evaluation form. The proofreader selects the category and the severity of errors, suggests a more appropriate translation and briefly evaluates the quality of the translation with respect to its intended purpose.
  • Billing unit: hour.
  • Technique: copying errors from the translation, selecting error categories and proposing corrections on the detailed evaluation form.
  • Capacity: 800 words/hour.

INTERPRETING (I)

Consecutive interpreting (IC)
  • The accurate verbal conversion of spoken information from the source to target language. The service takes place in real time with the participation of all involved parties. The aim is to correctly comprehend spoken language and to convert its meaning into the target language. With respect to time requirements, interpreting should be precise, comprehensible in the target language and adapted to the given situation.
  • The interpreting is consecutive: the interpreter speaks after the speaker in the source language finishes speaking. The interpreter stands or sits next to the speaker, listening while he/she speaks and taking notes. Once the speaker finishes speaking the interpreter renders the entire wording in the target language.
  • The interpreter is a native speaker of at least one of the languages (source or target), with excellent knowledge of the second language (A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret to and from this language is called “active”. A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret from this language but not into it is called “passive”). The interpreter is an expert in the issues of the particular field and has an excellent command of professional terminology. The interpreter should not only be able to mediate content for listeners, but also semantic elements (tone and emphasis), intent and the emotional timbre of information the speaker of the source language employs.
  • Prior to the interpreting session the interpreter is familiarised with the interpreting subject (one for which the interpreter possesses the proper skills). The interpreter studies materials that may be provided. He/she also searches for additional necessary information on the relevant subject himself/herself. The interpreter creates a list of professional expressions for possible consultation with an expert to make certain that he/she is sufficiently prepared prior to the start of the interpreting session.
  • The interpreter is to arrive at the designated location sufficiently ahead of time, appropriately dressed and prepared.
  • The interpreter must interpret in the highest possible quality, both professionally and linguistically. The interpreting must precisely correspond to the interpreted speech; the interpreter must not omit or add anything.
  • The interpreter’s verbal expression must be comprehensible, without complicated phrases or neologisms; it must be fluid and without excessive stuttering and repetition. The interpreter is to use literary language.
  • The interpreter is impartial, does not distort the meaning of utterances and does not take the side of any of the participants.
  • Billing unit: hour (following the completion of the interpreting services the interpreter is required to submit the completed form with a record of the course of the interpreting session for which the invoice is issued). In the case that the services are provided away from the interpreter’s residence the interpreter is reimbursed for travel expenses to the relevant site. In the case that the services are provided on multiple days away from the interpreter’s residence, the interpreter is also reimbursed for accommodation and meals.
Simultaneous interpreting (IS)
  • The accurate verbal conversion of spoken information from the source to target language. The service takes place in real time with the participation of all involved parties. The aim is to correctly comprehend spoken language and to convert its meaning into the target language. With respect to time requirements, interpreting should be precise, comprehensible in the target language and adapted to the given situation.
  • Simultaneous interpreting is performed with the use of interpreting equipment at the same time the speaker talks. The interpreter generally works from an interpreting booth using a microphone and headphones; the listener(s) of the source language hear the interpreted speech in headphones. At least two interpreters work in the interpreting booth; these individuals alternate interpreting every 10-20 minutes.
  • The interpreter is a native speaker of at least one of the languages (source or target), with excellent knowledge of the second language (A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret to and from this language is called “active”. A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret from this language but not into it is called “passive”). The interpreter is an expert in the issues of the particular field and has an excellent command of professional terminology. The interpreter should not only be able to mediate content for listeners, but also semantic elements (tone and emphasis), intent and the emotional timbre of information the speaker of the source language employs.
  • Prior to the interpreting session the interpreter is familiarised with the interpreting subject (one for which the interpreter possesses the proper skills). The interpreter studies materials that may be provided. He/she also searches for additional necessary information on the relevant subject himself/herself. The interpreter creates a list of professional expressions for possible consultation with an expert to make certain that he/she is sufficiently prepared prior to the start of the interpreting session.
  • The interpreter is to arrive at the designated location sufficiently ahead of time, appropriately dressed and prepared.
  • The interpreter must interpret in the highest possible quality, both professionally and linguistically. The interpreting must precisely correspond to the interpreted speech; the interpreter must not omit or add anything.
  • The interpreter’s verbal expression must be comprehensible, without complicated phrases or neologisms; it must be fluid and without excessive stuttering and repetition. The interpreter is to use literary language.
  • The interpreter is impartial, does not distort the meaning of answers and does not take the side of any of the participants.
  • Simultaneous interpreting also includes chuchotage (whispered interpreting), in which no equipment is used. This type of interpreting is suitable for one or two listeners. The interpreter whispers the interpretation to the listener(s) as the speaker speaks.
  • Another type of simultaneous interpreting is relay interpreting. The speaker’s message is first rendered to a single language common to all the interpreters, who then render the message to the relevant individual languages.
  • Billing unit: hour (following the completion of the interpreting services the interpreter is required to submit the completed form with a record of the course of the interpreting session for which the invoice is issued). In the case that the services are provided away from the interpreter’s residence the interpreter is reimbursed for travel expenses to the relevant site. In the case that the services are provided on multiple days away from the interpreter’s residence, the interpreter is also reimbursed for accommodation and meals.
Sworn/certified interpreting (IW)
  • Sworn/certified interpreting is performed by an interpreter accredited by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Justice, the Supreme Court or another institution in accordance with the laws of the given country. The interpreting must fulfil the requirements of the country for sworn/certified interpreting.
  • The accurate verbal conversion of spoken information from the source to target language. The service takes place in real time with the participation of all involved parties. The aim is to correctly comprehend spoken language and to convert its meaning into the target language. With respect to time requirements, interpreting should be precise, comprehensible in the target language and adapted to the given situation.
  • Sworn/certified interpreting is usually consecutive: the interpreter speaks after the speaker in the source language finishes speaking. The interpreter stands or sits next to the speaker, listening while he/she speaks and taking notes. Once the speaker finishes speaking the interpreter renders the entire wording in the target language.
  • The interpreter is a native speaker of at least one of the languages (source or target), with excellent knowledge of the second language (A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret to and from this language is called “active”. A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret from this language but not into it is called “passive”). The interpreter is an expert in the issues of the particular field and has an excellent command of professional terminology. The interpreter should not only be able to mediate content for listeners, but also semantic elements (tone and emphasis), intent and the emotional timbre of information the speaker of the source language employs.
  • Prior to the interpreting session the interpreter is familiarised with the interpreting subject (one for which the interpreter possesses the proper skills). The interpreter studies materials that may be provided. He/she also searches for additional necessary information on the relevant subject himself/herself. The interpreter creates a list of professional expressions for possible consultation with an expert to make certain that he/she is sufficiently prepared prior to the start of the interpreting session.
  • The interpreter is to arrive at the designated location sufficiently ahead of time, appropriately dressed and prepared.
  • The interpreter must interpret in the highest possible quality, both professionally and linguistically. The interpreting must precisely correspond to the interpreted speech; the interpreter must not omit or add anything.
  • The interpreter’s verbal expression must be comprehensible, without complicated phrases or neologisms; it must be fluid and without excessive stuttering and repetition. The interpreter is to use literary language.
  • The interpreter is impartial, does not distort the meaning of answers and does not take the side of any of the participants.
  • Billing unit: hour (following the completion of the interpreting services the interpreter is required to submit the completed form with a record of the course of the interpreting session for which the invoice is issued). In the case that the services are provided away from the interpreter’s residence the interpreter is reimbursed for travel expenses to the relevant site. In the case that the services are provided on multiple days away from the interpreter’s residence, the interpreter is also reimbursed for accommodation and meals.
Remote interpreting (IT)
  • The accurate verbal conversion of spoken information from the source to target language. The service takes place in real time with the participation of all involved parties. The aim is to correctly comprehend spoken language and to convert its meaning into the target language. With respect to time requirements, interpreting should be precise, comprehensible in the target language and adapted to the given situation.
  • Remote interpreting can be organised as interpreting over the phone or online interpreting.
  • Interpreting over the telephone is consecutive interpreting. The interpreter speaks after the speaker in the source language finishes speaking. The speech is divided into short segments. The interpreter either meets the client personally to make a joint phone call to the third party, or the communication between the interpreter, client and third party is arranged on a remote basis over the telephone. 
  • Online interpreting can be either consecutive or simultaneous, which takes place at the same time the speaker talks. The interpreter either meets the client personally to make a video call to the third party, or the communication between the interpreter, client and other persons is arranged on a remote basis over a previously agreed and tested video stream platform(s) accessed by the participants via an active link. All participants should have technical equipment of sufficient quality and fast and stable internet connection, and the place where they are located should be sufficiently quiet. If any technical problems occur, the interpreter is required to immediately inform the client about them so that they can be rectified.
  • The interpreter is a native speaker of at least one of the languages (source or target), with excellent knowledge of the second language (A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret to and from this language is called “active”. A language the interpreter has command of to such a degree that he/she is able to interpret from this language but not into it is called “passive”). The interpreter is an expert in the issues of the particular field and has an excellent command of professional terminology. The interpreter should not only be able to mediate content for listeners, but also semantic elements (tone and emphasis), intent and the emotional timbre of information the speaker of the source language employs.
  • Prior to the interpreting session the interpreter is familiarised with the interpreting subject (one for which the interpreter possesses the proper skills). The interpreter studies materials that may be provided. He/she also searches for additional necessary information on the relevant subject himself/herself. The interpreter creates a list of professional expressions for possible consultation with an expert to make certain that he/she is sufficiently prepared prior to the start of the interpreting session.
  • The interpreter is available on the designated location and phone number / video stream platform sufficiently ahead of time.
  • The interpreter must interpret in the highest possible quality, both professionally and linguistically. The interpreting must precisely correspond to the interpreted speech; the interpreter must not omit or add anything.
  • The interpreter’s verbal expression must be comprehensible, without complicated phrases or neologisms; it must be fluid and without excessive stuttering and repetition. The interpreter is to use literary language.
  • The interpreter is impartial, does not distort the meaning of answers and does not take the side of any of the participants.
  • Billing unit: hour/minute (following the completion of the interpreting services the interpreter is required to submit the completed form with a record of the course of the interpreting session for which the invoice is issued). In the case that the services are provided away from the interpreter’s residence the interpreter is reimbursed for travel expenses to the relevant site. In the case that the services are provided on multiple days away from the interpreter’s residence, the interpreter is also reimbursed for accommodation and meals. In the case of the interpreting over the phone, the interpreter is reimbursed for potential phone charges; these are billed according to a previously negotiated rate.

 

GRAPHIC WORK (DTP)

DTP layout processing on PC (DTPPC)
  • DTP (desktop publishing) work is understood as the complete graphic treatment of a translation into the same appearance and format as the source text.
  • DTP work is performed by a DTP specialist. This individual must work with the required version of the operating system, graphic application and platform (PC).
  • Prior to the commencement of DTP work the specialist checks the provided files against the reference PDF file supplied by the client to verify that he/she possesses complete materials – the fonts used in the source (necessary in the case that the target language is from the same group of languages as the source language – West European ,Central European, Baltic, Cyrillic languages, Turkish, Greek), images in the required format and resolution (print PDF files cannot be made after DTP without high definition images), the necessary templates with styles – and whether the source files are functional (if the contents and index work). The specialist then prepares all of the materials for the translation.
  • If possible, prior to the translation the DTP specialist converts the source files into a text format suitable for translation (*.rtf, *.ttx, etc.).
  • Following the translation the DTP specialist must convert the translated file back to the original format and adjust the text to the original layout.
  • DTP processing of the translated text includes the following operations:
    • the conversion of the translated files back into the original graphic file;
    • page and text formatting to ensure that the layout and formatting of the page correspond to the original source files and the typographical rules of individual languages and so that sentences and words never remain isolated (single-letter prepositions and conjunctions at the end of rows);
    • the adjustment of language settings, sequenced elements (table of contents, index) and the size of tables and cells so that the translated text fits into the document;
    • the proper placement and style of headers and footers;
    • the potential replacement of fonts and special characters;
    • the processing of images, replacement of captions and their proper settings (resolution, colour intensity, etc.), display and placement in the document if they are connected automatically by means of links;
    • in-house check – prior to delivery the DTP specialist checks through the entire file (e.g. PDF) once more to make sure it meets the required quality and does not contain any mistakes in the layout compared to the source document. A second DTP specialist shall make an in-house check (cross-check) when files are prepared for print.
  • DTP work is performed, for example, in these applications:
    • Adobe FrameMaker (*.fm, *.mif)
    • Adobe PageMaker (*.p65 = version 6.5, *.pmd = version 7.0)
    • Adobe InDesign (*.indd, *.inx)
    • Quark XPress (*.qxd)
    • Interleaf (*.doc (leaf))
    • Corel (*.cdr)
    • Auto CAD (*.dwg)
    • MS Word (*.doc)
  • Following the completion of all DTP work the DTP specialist creates a PDF file in low resolution, which is then sent for language sign-off.
  • After the language sign-off the DTP specialist implements the changes in DTP format (FrameMaker, PageMaker, etc.) and makes a final version of the graphic files or creates a PostScript or PDF file for print. The supplier should also implement the changes into the bilingual files and translation memory. Prior to submitting the final files the DTP specialist checks once more the functionality (table of contents, index), the proper placement and automatic insertion of images, the correct fonts and settings for printing the PostScript file (driver, page size, resolution, etc.).
  • Billing unit: hour or page.
  • Technique: processing graphics in special programs.
  • Capacity: approximately 10 pages/hour when processing in CAT, otherwise 2-5 pages/hour (the DTP specialist always establishes a time estimate on the basis of an analysis of the file – this depends on the language, letter density, editable or non-editable images, whether contents are generated manually or automatically, etc.).
DTP layout processing on MAC (DTPMAC)
  • DTP (desktop publishing) work is understood as the complete graphic treatment of a translation into the same appearance and format as the source text.
  • DTP work is performed by a DTP specialist. This individual must work with the required version of the operating system, graphic application and platform (Macintosh).
  • Prior to the commencement of DTP work the specialist checks the provided files against the reference PDF file supplied by the client to verify that he/she possesses complete materials – the fonts used in the source (necessary in the case that the target language is from the same group of languages as the source language – West European / Central European / Baltic / Cyrillic languages /Turkish / Greek), images in the required format and resolution (print PDF files cannot be made after DTP without high definition images), the necessary templates with styles – and whether the source files are functional (if the contents and index work). The specialist then prepares all of the materials for the translation.
  • If possible, prior to the translation the DTP specialist converts the source files into a text format suitable for translation (*.rtf, *.ttx, etc.).
  • Following the translation the DTP specialist must convert the translated file back to the original format and adjust the text to the original layout.
  • DTP processing of the translated text includes the following operations:
    • the conversion of the translated files back into the original graphic file;
    • page and text formatting to ensure that the layout and formatting of the page correspond to the original source files and the typographical rules of individual languages and so that sentences and words never remain isolated (single-letter prepositions and conjunctions at the end of rows);
    • the adjustment of language settings, sequenced elements (table of contents, index) and the size of tables and cells so that the translated text fits into the document;
    • the proper placement and style of headers and footers;
    • the potential replacement of fonts and special characters;
    • the processing of images, replacement of captions and their proper settings (resolution, colour intensity, etc.), display and placement in the document if they are connected automatically by means of links;
    • in-house check – prior to delivery the DTP specialist checks through the entire file (e.g. PDF) once more to make sure it meets the required quality and does not contain any mistakes in the layout compared to the source document. A second DTP specialist shall make an in-house check (cross-check) when files are prepared for print.
  • DTP work is performed, for example, in these applications:
    • Adobe FrameMaker (*.fm, *.mif)
    • Adobe PageMaker (*.p65 = version 6.5, *.pmd = version 7.0)
    • Adobe InDesign (*.indd, *.inx)
    • Quark XPress (*.qxd)
    • Interleaf (*.doc (leaf))
    • Corel (*.cdr)
    • Auto CAD (*.dwg)
    • MS Word (*.doc)
  • Following the completion of all DTP work the DTP specialist creates a PDF file in low resolution, which is then sent for language sign-off.
  • After the language sign-off the DTP specialist implements the changes in DTP format (FrameMaker, PageMaker, etc.) and makes a final version of the graphic files or creates a PostScript or PDF file for print. The supplier should also implement the changes into the bilingual files and translation memory. Prior to submitting the final files the DTP specialist checks once more the functionality (table of contents, index), the proper placement and automatic insertion of images, the correct fonts and settings for printing the PostScript file (driver, page size, resolution, etc.).
  • Billing unit: hour or page.
  • Technique: processing graphics in special programs.
  • Capacity: approximately 10 pages/hour when processing in CAT, otherwise 2-5 pages/hour (the DTP specialist always establishes a time estimate on the basis of an analysis of the file – this depends on the language, letter density, editable or non-editable images, whether contents are generated manually or automatically, etc.).
DTP graphic processing on PC (DTPPCGR)
  • Processing images and formatting on the PC platform – the replacement of source text with translated text and its working into a high quality form. The image is either editable in layers or is non-editable, in which case manual treatment follows. This work is performed by a DTP specialist.
  • Billing unit: hour or piece.
  • Capacity: simple graphics: editable images – 10 images/hour, non-editable images – 5 images/hour; complicated graphics: editable images – 5 images/hour, non-editable images – 2 images/hour.
Graphic editing (DTPEDIT)
  • The insertion of images and the arrangement of graphics in translated documents, for example from a PDF to a translation in Word.
  • Graphic editing examples: the creation of a bilingual document (insertion of text in the target language beneath text in the source language), the scanning and insertion of images from printed form into a translation, the insertion of tables, the insertion of headers and footers that contain images in a PDF source, etc.
  • Billing unit: piece/hour.

 

LOCALIZATION (SW)

  • The linguistic, content and technical adaptation of a product to the local market – the complete conversion of a product into the target language so that it corresponds to the customs and needs of the local users.
  • Localization involves the work of translators, DTP specialists and SW specialists.
  • Products subjected to localization include, for example, software and web applications, websites, database systems, Help files, system reports, texts on the displays of consumer electronics, etc.
Software engineering (SWENGIN)
  • The technical adaptation of software to the local market. The SW specialist converts the translated text into the format of the original application and ensures the full functionality of the software in the target language.
  • The SW specialist prepares the file for translation – downloads the file into the specific application, converts it into an editable format, designates what is to be translated and locks text that is part of the program. The specialist then converts the translated text back into the format of the original application and performs the finishing work.
  • Technical localization includes changing the language coding, keyboard shortcuts, the size of text and dialogue fields, dates, time, number and currency formats, checking the proper display of characters, the editing of images, fonts, links, etc.
  • Products for localization are submitted, for example, in the following formats:
    • software (DLLEXE)
    • websites (PHPASPFLA)
    • Help files (HLPCHM)
    • documentation (FMQX*, PM*)
    • audio, video (MPEGAVIVOB)
  • Localization (opening and processing the file) is performed, for example, in these applications:
    • Alchemy Catalyst
    • Passolo
    • Microsoft Localisation Studio
    • Visual Localize
    • Novell Localization Workbench
    • Symantec Pebbles
    • Oracle HyperHub
    • Lotus RED
    • ResEdit
    • Resorcerer
    • Project Builder, Interface Builder
    • AppleGlot
    • PowerGlot
    • Installer Vise
  • Finally, localised products are tested for functionality (SWTSTUI) and language (TEST).
  • Billing unit: hour (on the basis of a SW specialist analysis).
Screenshooting (SWSCRN)
  • The creation of screenshots of the translated software (for the purpose of language testing or replacing screenshots in documentation) – a component of localization projects. Performed by a SW specialist in special programs.
  • Billing unit: hour/piece.
  • Capacity: 30 screenshots/hour.
Software testing (SWTSTUI)
  • Testing the functionality of a localised product. The localised product must have the same functionality as the original product, with functional links, etc., and must be utilisable without errors on the local market and all available platforms. Function testing is conducted by a SW specialist manually or automatically by means of scripts. Conducted in a localised application.
  • So-called “test cases” are used to test software functionality. Test cases are instructions created by the client (a set of conditions and variables used by the SW specialist to determine whether the product functions correctly).
  • Billing unit: hour.
Language testing (TEST)
  • Testing the language accuracy of a localised product. Language testing is conducted by a native speaker of the target language with knowledge of the given field. Performed on localised applications, websites and online Help files.
  • The aim is to check:
    • the accuracy, completeness and consistency of the translation;
    • formatting (layout and flow of text, paragraphs, text highlighting, fonts, margins, etc.);
    • division of words, check of lone, single-letter prepositions and conjunctions at the end of rows;
    • the proper display of all characters, images, symbols and their correct placement;
    • functionality of links;
    • references to manuals, chapters, illustrations, pages, etc.;
    • compliance with the typographical customs of the target language.
    • The testing checks the accuracy and consistency of the translation (can also be performed by comparing screenshots) and compliance with the conventions of the target language (diacritics, special characters, etc.) in the given field.
  • Billing unit: hour.
Help testing (SWTSTUA)
  • Functional testing of localised Help. Help can be in the formats WinHelp (*.doc, *.rtf) or HTML (*.html, *.xml).
  • Performed by a SW specialist, who compares the source CHM file with the localised file.
  • Procedure for translation of Help: the compiled CHM file is decompiled, the files are translated and then compiled in the resulting Help using these tools: Robohelp, HTML JHelp Workshop. Help in *.xml or *.html files is converted to a *.ttx file. The translated *.ttx file is then checked in the Beyond Compare program.
  • Billing unit: hour.

 

ADDITIONAL SERVICES

Documents alignment (AL)
  • The alignment of the source and translated document for the purpose of creating a translation memory from documents translated without a CAT tool.
  • The alignment is performed in Trados WinAlign or Across Alignment.
  • The work is performed by a linguist with good knowledge of the source and target language by comparing and connecting corresponding source and target segments.
  • Billing unit: word.
  • Capacity: 4,000 words/hour (assuming that the layout of segments in the source and target documents match).
Text transcription (REWR)
  • The transcription of text into an editable file (MS Word).
  • Transcription is performed if the source is in a non-editable format (handwritten, scanned) and the aim is to create a source and translation in electronic form, or if certain source passages that are non-editable or untranslated are to remain in the translation.
  • Billing unit: target word.
  • Capacity: 1,000 words/hour.
Audio/video recording transcription (AVRW)
  • The transcription of audio/video recordings (e.g. from interpreting) into an editable file (e.g. MS Word).
  • A time code must be written at the beginning of each paragraph when transcribing from a video recording.
  • Individual speakers must be distinguished in the transcription (e.g. man/woman).
  • Billing unit: hour/word.
  • Capacity: The transcription of a minute-long recording takes approximately 10 minutes in the case of a recording with normal speech and pauses (such as a film). In the case of a lower quality recording or speech without pauses (such as a conference) the transcription takes 15 minutes or more. One minute of a spoken recording corresponds to approximately 150 words.
Dubbing (DB)
  • The act of replacing the spoken words in a film with spoken words in a different language. This is performed when a different language version of a film is created. The film dialogues of actor(s) are dubbed by other actors, and the other sound components (background noise, music) remain unchanged. A special type of dubbing called voiceover involves muting or removing the entire original sound of the scene and dubbing the voice of the actor(s).
  • Dubbing is performed by a dubbing studio, which works with the original recording (BETA CAMDVDMPEGAVI, etc.) and the translation of the spoken word.
  • If the script of the recording is not available, the recording must first be transcribed and translated. The transcription of the spoken word in the source language and its translation into the target language is performed by native speakers. The translator must have an excellent command of both the source and target language, as well as excellent literary skills. The target text of the individual responses must have a length corresponding to the source text.
  • Cooperating on the creation of the final recording in the target language are an editor, who edits the translated text for dubbing, and a director and actors who record the spoken text. The cadence of the original dialogue must be retained.
  • Billing unit: hour.
Subtitling (SUBTL)
  • The creation of subtitles for spoken words in a film. (When creating subtitles for the hearing-impaired it is also necessary to indicate sounds and acoustic signals important for understanding the film) Subtitles are created by a production company.
  • The producer of the subtitles works with the original recording and the translation of the dialogue.
  • If the script of the recording is not available, the recording must first be transcribed and translated. The transcription of the spoken word in the source language and its translation into the target language is performed by native speakers. The translator must have excellent command of both the source and target language, as well as excellent literary skills in order to express the dialogue in written text.
  • A time code must be registered in the transcription approximately every 5 sentences.
  • The speech of individual speakers is separated by a dash and placed on separate lines.
  • When creating subtitles it is necessary to maintain maximum brevity without changing the meaning of the dialogue.
  • The translated text is edited by an editor, who determines the exact length of the subtitles so they can be read comfortably by viewers.
  • Subtitles typically have 40 characters (including punctuation) per line (applies to films to be shown in cinemas; films on DVD can have more characters on a line and a smaller font). At most two lines appear on the screen; single-line subtitles should appear on the screen for three seconds, double-line subtitles for five seconds.
  • Billing unit: piece/hour/word.
Document binding (BINDING)
  • The firm binding of documents (e.g. annual reports, scientific works or other special-purpose translations).
  • Billing unit: piece.
Data provided on CD
  • Translation/terminology/recording provided on CD.
  • Billing unit: piece.
Courier service (MESSEN)
  • The sending of translations/recordings by courier.
  • Billing unit: piece.
Audio/video recording (AVRC)
  • The replacement of text with spoken word.
  • Billing unit: hour.
Sworn/certified translation copy (COPYW)
  • A copy of a sworn/certified translation is made when there are multiple copies of the same source document. Each copy is bound separately and it must fulfil the formal requirements of the given country.
  • Billing unit: page.
Terminology work (TERM)
  • The creation of a specialized glossary (bilingual or multilingual), typically to support software for terminology administration.
  • Glossaries are convenient for large orders in which specific terminology repeats; they are likewise useful for consistency in the case that more than one translator is working on a translation.
  • The glossary is created by a linguist with an excellent command of the source and target language and the specific field.
  • Prior to the creation of the glossary it is necessary to define the target group and the terminology, and select the relevant terms from the source text. The size of the glossary will depend on the length or expertise of the text.
  • The extraction of terminology entries can be performed in the following ways (or according to the client’s specific instructions): 
    • Repeating terms are extracted using a special tool. The linguist checks the extracted list of terms and retains those important for the given field.
    • The linguist records terms that repeat in the text during work with the text (ideally by means of a CAT tool). Work with indexes is recommended, as these typically contain essential terms.
  • These terms are used to create a list of terminology entries in the source language. The equivalent translation of these individual terms in a foreign language(s) is added along with possible additional supplemental information: the field and specialisation, definition of the entry and the source (translation text, dictionary, Internet, professional literature, expert consultation, etc.).
  • The terminology should be approved by the customer or the customer’s authorized representative to ensure that specific company or professional terminology and jargon is used.
  • If the text is translated using a CAT tool, the glossary is created by means of this tool.
  • If the text is translated without the use of a CAT tool, it is necessary for the linguist to extract terminology to a *.xls file (prepared in advance).
  • In the case that the customer provides its own glossary in the source language, only the translation of this glossary follows (into one or multiple languages).
  • The glossary must only contain currently used and generally valid terms. Terms are typically nouns (in the singular) or verbs (in the infinitive), single words, phrases or even abbreviations that repeat in the text and are used in the given field/context. Terms should be entered consistently (with respect to number, gender, tense, etc.).
  • The linguist must select the proper design and layout for the glossary. It is appropriate to arrange the entries in alphabetical order (for languages with articles it is necessary to place the articles/gender in the next column to ensure the correct import of data into the CAT tool).
  • An unlimited amount of additional data can be added to each entry (annotation, context of use, images, etc.); this must be defined in columns for the CAT tool. Following its import to the CAT tool the information listed along with individual terms is displayed in the features of the given entry.
  • Tools used to create glossaries: Across, CATS – Computer-Aided Terminology System, GFT Data Term, Lingo, LingTools, LogiTerm, MobiDic, MTX, Trados MultiTerm, SDL TermBase, TermStar, Termwatch, UniTerm, Xerox Terminology Suite, etc.
  • Tools used to extract repeating terminology: Trados Term Extract, Comprendium Terminologist, SDLPhraseFinder, Xplanation, etc.
  • Prior to submitting the glossary the linguist must check all of the entries and verify that the glossary contains no double entries, spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, formatting errors and that all of the client’s instructions have been respected.
  • Billing unit: hour.
  • Technique: the extraction of terminology entries from the source text and the addition of their foreign language equivalents.
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